Legal notice

French National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED)
133 Boulevard Davout
75980 Paris cedex 20 - France
Tel.: +33 (0)1 56 06 20 00
Publishing Director : Magda Tomasini
Managing Editor : Marie-Aline Charles
Editor-in-Chief: Laure Gravier

Webmaster : Geneviève Bourge & Laurent Terrien (

Illustrator: Bernadette Pons

Website host:
French National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED)
133 Boulevard Davout
75980 Paris cedex 20 - France
Tel.: +33 (0)1 56 06 20 00

This Website contains or may contain personal data processed solely for the purposes of information or external communication relating to the goal or activity pursued by INED within the framework of the Elfe project.
Although it is thus exempt from notifying the French data protection authority (CNIL) by virtue of Minute no. 2006-138 of 9 May 2006, it nonetheless complies with the processing conditions set out therein and allows participants to access, modify and delete data pursuant to the French Data Protection Act no. 78-17 (art. 34 and art. 36). To exercise this right, please contact the Editor-in-Chief (
The information made available on this site may be viewed and downloaded free of charge, unless specifically stated otherwise. Reuse is, however, conditional upon respect of the integrity of the information and data, and a specific mention of sources.
All the illustrations (photos, graphics, etc.) are the sole property of INED and may not be reproduced without prior approval.
The Elfe project’s brands and logos are an original creation and the exclusive property of INED, protected by French and international copyright law. Any reproduction or representation other than for strictly private use is expressly forbidden.

Photo credits
The images and illustrations published on this website come from several different sources and image banks (Fotolia and Flickr). Those marked © Elfe are the property of INED and must not be reproduced without prior permission.

Copyright and image rights are shown either in a caption below the photo or else in the IPTC metadata of the photo files.
Copyright is indicated by the symbol © and Creative Commons licences by the letters CC.
The credits for the images and illustrations featured in the different sections in the drop-down menu are provided below.