Environment

Vous trouverez dans cette rubrique des résumés d’articles publiés dans des revues ou de communications lors de rencontres scientifiques pour le domaine environnement.

Levels of pyrethroid pesticides in pregnant women

Dereumeaux C., Saoudi A., Goria S., Wagner V., De Crouy-Chanel P., Pecheux M., Berat B., Zaros C., Guldner L. “Urinary levels of pyrethroid pesticides and determinants in pregnant French women from the Elfe cohort”. Environment international, 2018 Oct, 119:89-99.

The aim of the present study was to measure levels of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of pregnant women and attempt to identify their associated determinants. Urine samples were collected from 1077 future mothers on admission to a maternity unit and screened for five pyrethroid metabolites: [3-phenoxy benzoic (3-PBA), 4‑fluoro‑3‑phenoxy benzoic acid (4-F-3-PBA), Cis3‑(2,2dibromovinyl)‑2,2dimethyl cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Cis-DBCA), Cis3(2,2dichlorovinyl)2,2‑dimethyl cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Cis-DCCA), and Trans-3‑(2,2dichlorovinyl)‑2,2dimethyl cyclopropane-carboxylic acid (Trans-DCCA)]. With the exception of 4-F-3-PBA, all the metabolites were detected in all the urine samples. Comparison of these results with data from other countries showed that French women tend to be more exposed to pyrethroids than their American counterparts, but less exposed than Chinese or Caribbean mothers. In the present study, metabolite levels were associated with smoking during pregnancy, eating fish, consuming alcohol, using pesticides in the home, and living near arable fields during pregnancy. [Link to the article]

Analysis of pesticides in hair samples from pregnant women

Béranger R., Hardy EM., Dexet C., Guldner L., Zaros C., Nougadère A., Metten MA., Chevrier C., Appenzeller BMR. “Multiple pesticide analysis in hair samples of pregnant French women: Results from the ELFE national birth cohort.” Environment International, 2018 Nov, 120:43-53.

The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of a hundred or so different pesticide molecules in strands of hair collected from mothers enrolled in the Elfe birth cohort (N = 311) who had just given birth in northeastern or southwestern France. Analysis revealed a median of 43 chemicals per woman, and 28 substances were found in between 70% and 100% of the hair samples. The highest measured concentrations were of permethrin (pyrethroid insecticide), p-nitrophenol (fungicide) and pentachlorophenol (fungicide). The authors concluded that each of the women in this sample had been simultaneously exposed to a variety of pesticides during pregnancy, some of which are suspected of being reproductive toxins or endocrine disrupters. [Link to the article]

Absorption of environmental pollutants during pregnancy

Dereumeaux C., Guldner L., Saoudi A., Pecheux M., Crouy-Chanel (de) P., Bérat B., Wagner V., Goria S., “Imprégnation des femmes enceintes par les polluants de l’environnement en France en 2011”. Volet périnatal du programme national de biosurveillance mis en œuvre au sein de la cohorte Elfe. Tome 1: polluants organiques. Saint-Maurice: Public Health France, 2016.

The national biomonitoring programme set up by Public Health France has a perinatal component, the aim being to estimate pregnant women’s exposure to certain pollutants that are present in the environment (bisphenol A, phtalates, pesticides, etc.). The present study, conducted among a subsample of 4,145 mothers belonging to the Elfe cohort, has yielded the first nationally reliable results about pregnant women’s absorption of various environmental pollutants. Based on measurements of biological samples collected in maternity units (cord blood, mother’s blood, urine, hair), the study found that the majority of the pollutants were present in nearly all the pregnant women. Food was the main source of exposure, even though there were other sources, notably the air indoors and outdoors. [Link to article]

Dietary exposure to pesticide residues

De Gavell E., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Charles M.-A., Chevrier C., Hulin M., Sirot V., Merlo M., Nougadère A., “Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues and associated risk in the French Elfe cohort of pregnant women”, Environment International, 92-3: 533-42, July-August 2016.

The dietary data used in this study came from a self-report questionnaire that Elfe mothers filled in at the maternity unit. This concerned their consumption of food and drink during the third trimester. These data for pregnant women were linked to data on pesticide levels for each foodstuff, taken from the second Total Diet Study (EAT2) conducted by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES). We then integrated the toxicological data for each of the pesticides we analysed.
Results suggested that the food consumption of Elfe women during pregnancy exposed them to a potential risk of pesticide contamination. This risk concerned high levels of three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, pirimiphos-methyl and dimethoate) that are mainly detected in fruit and cereals: apricots, peaches, prunes and cherries (44%), bread (11%), apples and pears (10%). These data will inform future analyses of links between pesticides and the development of Elfe children. [Link to article]

Exposure to microorganisms in the home

Rocchi S., Reboux G., Frossard V., Scherer E., Valot B., Laboissiere A., Zaros C., Vacheyrou M., Gillet F., Roussel S., Raherison C., Millon L., and the Elfe team. “Microbiological characterization of 3193 French dwellings of Elfe cohort children”, Science of the Total Environment, 505C, 1026-1035, February 2015.

We analysed the microorganisms (bacteria, house dust mites, moulds) found in the 3,000 dust traps that were placed in infants’ bedrooms during their first 2 months of life, with a view to assessing their impact on the children’s subsequent health, especially their respiratory health. We established six profiles of exposure to microorganisms in the home. Two of these were fairly frequent in western France, with one characterized by high levels of house dust mites and bacteria, and the other by high levels of house dust mites, bacteria and moulds. Greater humidity and temperatures favouring the development of these microorganisms could explain these results. The geographical distribution of our profiles matched that found in a recent study on the frequency of asthma in young children conducted in day nurseries.
Follow-up data for the Elfe children will allow us to check whether there is indeed a link between microorganism exposure profiles and children’s respiratory health. The goal set by the Elfe study is to look for correlations between the incidence of respiratory diseases in the different regions and factors such as housing quality, ventilation and insulation. [Link to article]

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